Extracellular Vesicles and particles (EVPs), including exosomes, are membrane-bound cargos (size range 30–150 nm) comprised of a lipid bilayer that contain various biomolecules, such as proteins or nucleic acids, and play crucial roles in different cellular or pathological processes. With increasing recognition of the central role of exosomes in intercellular (cell-to-cell) communication and transportation, current exosome research covers almost all research areas in biomedical science (immunology, neuroscience, oncology, endocrinology, and cardiovascular research) and have the great potential in both diagnosis (some of contained proteins or nucleic acids in exosomes can serve as biomarkers of diseases) and therapy (engineered exosomes can serve as new drug delivery system with high efficiency and low risks). Based on one latest study published on Cell (Hoshino et al., 2020, Cell 182, 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.07.009) , tens of new pan-EVP markers and tumor-derived EVP markers in human tissues and plasma EVP proteins have been identified and can be useful for cancer detection and cancer type determination. This study greatly move the clinical application of exosomes forward in cancer diagnosis.
Based on this study, we collected representative EVP proteins or genes that are proposed to be pan-exosome markers or potential cancer biomarkers as below and provided featured antibodies for exosome research.
Traditional pan-exosome markers
HSPA8/Hsc70, HSP90AA1/Hsp90α, HSP90AB1/Hsp90β, HSPA4/Hsp70, CD9, TSG101, ALIX, CD63, CD81, FLOT1, FLOT2
Additional pan-exosome markers
ACTB, RAP1B, Moesin, fibronectin 1, A2M, Gelsolin, B2M, PRDX2, Filamin A
Pan-tumor exosome markers
THBS2, VCAN, DNAJA1, CRMP2, PGK1, EHD2, CAVIN1, FGGY, CD36
PaCa plasma EVP markers
CA2, CD55, KRAS, PEBP1, SRI, TGM2, PSMA4, XPNPEP2, ABCB11, ALPL, ABCB1
LuCa plasma EVP markers
CFB, CD53, PRSS1, RDX, Radixin, CHMP4B, PSMB1, ACTA2, Histone H2A.Z
Neuroblastoma plasma EVP markers
FTH1, KRT17, H3F3A, CD14, EPB42, KRT8
Osteosarcoma plasma EVP markers